Operating a smart building in the hospitality / tourism sector - Training of Building Operators of the 21 st century

Public Channel / Adults Training

Title: Operating a smart building in the hospitality/tourism sector ? Training of
Building Operators of the 21st century
For whom: Building owners, Building Operators/Facilitators/Engineers,
Relevant Teachers/Educators, Software/Hardware integrators
Description: Building Management Systems (BMS) and respectively operation
of such systems exists for quite some time. However, there is now a growing
demand for Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabled devices to be used in (smarter)
building automation for optimal occupant comfort and energy savings. Being
able to use variety of data and analyse and make sense out of it, creates
opportunities for energy savings and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
This workshop will introduce participants to a complete work-based training
programme for operators of IoT-enabled smart buildings in the hospitality
sector (https://smart-building-operator.eu/), using examples from PHOEBE
DomognosticsTM monitoring and anomaly detection platform
(https://phoebeinnovations.com/domognostics ).
Speaker: George M. Milis, PhD, Software Systems Engineer/Analyst

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40. Domognostics ™ from PHOEBE Innovations [10] [10] phoebeinnovations.com/domognostics , www.domognostics.eu

21. IoT impact on performance In 21 st century we expect our monitoring and control systems to exploit such seamless intelligence and be able to automatically utilize new measurements, as well as processing and actuation capabilities.

41. So...how is the Building Operator profile evolving? We have seen that IoT technologies lead the way in turning buildings into “smart”. Use of analytics as a tool to make sense out of complex and varying data. Data is turned into specific, actionable decision making. More intuitive visualisation.

44. Is it only about learning new technologies? Technology alone is not enough. The keyword in achieving real value is the appropriate changes in the processes and culture !

46. Take - home message Building Operators are expected to use IoT as a tool and bring real and low - cost solutions to building operation and performance against QoS criteria. And don’t forget about the challenges.

42. So...how is the Building Operator profile evolving? A very powerful tool for building operators. Automation is simply a tool. • The real intelligence lies in the ability of the building operator to leverage the outputs of the machine learning tools and interpret the discovered/visualised patterns and act upon the created knowledge The building operator can focus on the building performance criteria: energy efficiency, cost reduction and more importantly, keeping occupants happy, comfortable and productive.

17. IoT Actuators switches, lights, plugs, door logs, motorized valves, pumps, fans, sprinkler IoT Sensors Thermostats (temp. & humidity), motion sensors, air quality sensor, electricity meters, cameras, luminosity sensors, smartphones, wearable devices, refrigeration monitoring Components Gateways

9. Still... • Configuration mistakes due to problematic understanding of the system dynamics. • No guarantee that any configuration of the systems will remain optimal through time (performance drift) – ageing of building envelope, ageing of equipment, change of function, change of occupants’ profiles, change of climate conditions, etc.

15. Exponential evolution of technology “Internet of Things” is a giant network of connected “things”. “Things” are: people (still through personal communication devices), physical devices and components (e.g. mobile phones, coffee makers, washing machines, lamps, health monitoring devices), and virtual entities (e.g. a weather service, an accommodation booking service). Anything that has capability to connect to the internet and/or to other “things” and exchange data.

10. Still... • Current BAS/BMS focus on monitoring and controlling specific end - points, rather than on optimising the global performance by considering continuous feedback from the building and its occupants – For instance, complaints about hot/cold room temperature may be addressed by turning on/off the heating/cooling equipment, however, air temperature is only one of the factors that affect occupants’ perception of temperature. Humidity is at least as important, together with air - movement, and the radiant heat balance.

27. IoT main challenges Security is a big challenge: With billions of devices being connected together, what can we do to make sure that our data remain secure? Will someone be able to hack into our conference toom and get access to our sensitive data? Privacy and data sharing challenge: how to present data privacy in a situation where many billions of devices are connected? “Big data” challenge: massive amounts, big variety and very quickly arriving data produced by connected devices. How to store, track, analyse and make sense out of it? “Interoperability” challenge: Since there is no international standard of compatibility for IoT, it is difficult for devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other.

43. So...how is the Building Operator profile evolving? Building operators will be able to report what has been achieved: • How did we do this year comparing to last year in terms of energy consumption? • What changes in the configuration of our systems contributed the most to the reduction of energy usage and the improvement of the comfort of occupants? • What else can we achieve utilising the new technologies? Demonstrating the financial impact of changes to the upper management makes the job of Building Operator a very high profile one and also very important for the employer. Building Operator becomes a very demanding job with wide spectrum of skills and competencies! And Building Operation is becoming a more productive, effective and enjoyable job!

8. Needed an automated way to manage it... Building Management Systems (BMS) , otherwise known as Building Automation Systems (BAS) become available. These are computer - based systems installed in buildings, which control and monitor the building's mechanical and electrical equipment.

12. Can we do better? • BAS/BMS produce vast quantities of data, through sensors (which currently go unused). • This data can be mined in ways to extract hidden knowledge and help improve effectiveness. • Proactive information about a situation where the BAS/BMS is not performing as expected • Proactive measures to avoid component serious and catastrophic failures. • Software is in general much more efficient at detecting patterns, including hidden degradation of performance.

6. We spend 85 - 90% of our time in buildings of various types. So we invested through the years and we ended up with various complex, interconnected systems : • HVAC system (valves, fans, coils, storage tank, heat pumps, chillers, etc.) • Lighting system (internal/external lights, switches, curtains, etc.) • Safety system (smoke/gas sensors, sprinkles, emergency lighting, etc.) • Security system (cameras, door entry, in/out board, etc.) • Water system (indoor pipes flow, pool, showers, etc.)

3. “A facility manager is responsible for making sure that buildings and their services meet the needs of the people that live in them . Facility managers are accountable for services such as cleaning, security and parking, to make sure the surrounding environment is in a suitable condition to work . They also deal with building maintenance , with things like heating and air conditioning , to maintain the working environment.” Building Operator before automation...

26. How do we make sense of data? • Heterogeneity of devices and systems – Sensors measuring various quantities in different units • Disparity of data in various databases – Time series every 5sec, 1min, 5min,.... • Need for data correlation across databases • Serve data to various applications and persons (hotel manager, travel agents, etc.)

2. Operating a smart building in the hospitality / tourism sector - Training of Building Operators of the 21 st century George M. Milis, PhD Software Systems Engineer/Analyst PHOEBE Research and Innovations Ltd E: george.milis@phoebeinnovations.com W: www.domognostics.eu / www. smart - building - operator.eu/

48. Operating a smart building in the hospitality / tourism sector - Training of Building Operators of the 21 st century George M. Milis, PhD Software Systems Engineer/Analyst PHOEBE Research and Innovations Ltd E: george.milis@phoebeinnovations.com W: www.domognostics.eu / www. smart - building - operator.eu/

7. Performance criteria in building monitoring and control 1. Human (guests and personnel) comfort – Health protection, living/working efficiency, space utilisation and flexibility, etc. 2. Environmental friendliness – Energy efficiency 3. Cost effectiveness – operation and maintenance 4. Safety and security – e.g. measures against illegal entry, fire, earthquake, disaster and structural damages, etc. And sustainability

14. Smart? “Smartness” in general implies some form of built - in intelligence; that is, the capacity to receive information ( sense ), analyse it ( think ), generate new knowledge ( learn ) and make reasonable and actionable decisions ( act autonomously ). The terms “intelligent” and “smart” are in many cases over - used today, with some level of exaggeration. Current automation systems are making the first steps to turn the buildings into smart infrastructures.

24. Bonino, D.; Corno , F.; De Russis , L. A Semantics - Rich Information Technology Architecture for Smart Buildings. Buildings 2014 , 4 , 880 - 910 Plethora of communication protocols in Building/Home Automation

4. Facility Manager - Required skills • Understanding of building infrastructure and content/assets • Understanding mechanical parts of building, e.g. elevators, heating systems • Demonstrated leadership and management skills • Verbal and written communication skills • Procurement and negotiation skills • Drafting reports and making written recommendations • Confidence in decision making • n+ years of experience in facilities management position • Basic IT skills considered advantage

16. The history of “Internet of Things” The first use of the term “Internet of Things” was by Kevin Ashton, the co - founder of the Auto - ID Center at MIT, in a presentation he gave to Procter & Gamble (P&G) in 1999 – Kevin Ashton was “selling” the radio frequency ID (RFID) technology to P&G's management, and called his presentation "Internet of Things" • MIT professor Neil Gershenfeld’s book: “When Things Start to Think” (1999), provided a clear vision of IoT although not using the exact term • However, the idea was around since 1970s, in the embedded systems area.

20. IoT impact on capabilities • Assume a broken lighting sensor; The lighting control system could make use of a luminosity sensor from an Android device of a guest, e.g. to turn on the lights when they are off. • An HVAC system could use information from the local weather station to improve its decision making. • An HVAC system could use a window opening measurement from the security system to improve its decision making. • An HVAC system could use a newly installed electric heater to supplement its actuation capacity and effectively control the temperature considering also cost - optimality. • The security system could detect occupants’ presence in a room using information from a CO 2 measurement installed for the air - quality system.

19. “Digital Twin” “It is an ICT system mirroring, shadowing and threading its physical twin. Such systems recently become active and extend the characteristics of their physical counterpart. They can also take action on behalf of their physical counterpart, becoming a sort of avatar.” [1] [1] https://cmte.ieee.org/futuredirections/2019/07/07/digital - twins - where - we - are - where - we - go - vii/

11. Still... • Current BMS/BAS raise alarms for pre - defined threshold crossings or failed equipment at a single point → still, analysis and fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) is up to the operator to decide • The Operator needs to compare, correlate and find patterns from the available information and to decide whether a fault has occurred or if maintenance needs to be scheduled or parts/sensors to be replaced • No human can perform such automation tasks manually for a big building, with many rooms and zones, many automation sub - systems and complex equipment controls...

29. The Smart Buildings Market • Smart Buildings Market potential: – Integrated building automation/management systems – Adoption of IoT technologies (including AI, Big Data, Asset Digitization and Condition Monitoring, Real - Time Cloud Visualizations, etc.) – Effective consumption management and lower operational costs https://pixabay.com/photos/time - businessman - tablet - gears - 2676366/

5. Facility Manager - Responsibilities • Manually monitor the building state in terms of envelope infrastructure and content • Coordinate repairs • Maintain adequate parts inventory and order items as necessary • Purchase required third - party services, e.g. for cleaning, gardening, etc. • Supervise a team of maintenance technicians • Audit equipment and record service - related policies • Coordinate with building owners for changes to be recommended / implemented • Ensure compliance with all government regulations, as well as safety and security protocols • No need to have specific University or other education degree.

18. Smart Buildings “Smartness” in Building Automation arises from • Systems Connectivity • Systems Interoperability • Monitoring , Control and Optimization of systems operation, to improve: – Energy efficiency (HVAC control, lights control, etc.) – Comfort and Productivity (Indoor Air Quality) – Diagnosability and Robustness (fault and failure alerts, etc.) – Safety and Security (alarms in the event of fire or contamination, etc.) – Usability (user friendly Human Machine Interface, etc.)

45. Is it only about learning new technologies? Get involved in the design of any solution for the building operation! Adjust them to your operational needs and knowledge of the building! Successful projects involve multiple phases: • Step 1 - Identify objectives • Step 2 - Conduct a needs analysis • Step 3 - Define system requirements • Step 4 - System acquisition • Step 5 - System implementation • Step 6 - Process and system evaluation • Step 7 - Process and system adjustment

25. • Building automation today can be a lot like the story of the “Tower of Babel”. • “Building owners and operators can be frustrated with the lack of interoperability and integration between infrastructure management tools and current IT systems.” - Anixter Inc. © 2019 All Rights Reserved Jaimie Giarrusso | November 20, 2015 Link: https://blog.se.com/building - management/2015/11/20/finally - simple - guide - understanding - open - protocols/ The Tower of Babel

31. The Smart Buildings Market • Economic Factors affecting the market - Improved energy efficiency and decreased operational costs - up to 40% - Improved comfort – up to 18% - Increased productivity – up to 10% - Strict initiatives, laws and regulations – towards energy efficiency and sustainability https://pixabay.com/illustrations/diagram - icon - business - symbol - chart - 2008478/

23. Summary of protocols and standards Application Protocol DDS CoAP AMQP MQTT MQTT - SN XMPP HTTP REST Service Discovery mDNS DNS - SD Infrastructure Protocols Routing Protocol RPL Network Layer 6LoWPAN IPv4/IPv6 Link Layer IEEE 802.15.4 Physical/ Device Layer LTE - A EPCglobal IEE 802.15.4 Z - Wave Influential Protocols IEEE 1888.3, IPSec IEEE 1905.1

28. The Smart Buildings Market • Current Situation – Buildings are responsible for : – 3 6 % of greenhouse gas emissions – 40 % of total energy consumption – 30 % of wasted energy (~ $ 100 bn per year) https://pixabay.com/photos/smart - city - circuit - board - 4308821/

35. Key Players of the Smart Buildings Market • Corporate Giants of the Global Smart Buildings Market • ABB Group • Building IQ • Cisco Systems • Delta Controls • EnergyCAP • EnerNOC • General Electric • Hitachi • Honda Smart Home • Honeywell • IBM Corporation • Johnson Controls • Legrand • Microsoft • Schneider Electric • Siemens AG • Trane • United Technologies

13. Smart? • Using automated processes (combining data and information in a non - trivial way) • ... to evaluate the state and control the building's operation. Source : http://blueapp.io/blog/why - iot - is - the - best - solution - to - reduce - cost - in - smart - buildings/

36. Key Players of the Smart Buildings Market • Startups of the Global Smart Buildings Market • 75F • Accuware • Blue Pillar • Build Pulse • CANDI Controls • Control Envy • Enlightened • Envio Systems • eSight Energy • Gridium • J2 Innovations • Razberi Technologies • SecuriThings • SensorFlow • PHOEBE • Veridium • Verdigris Technologies • Zwipe

33. The Smart Buildings Market • Services segment - to grow at the highest CAGR ( 2017 - 22 ) Implementing intelligent automation and technologies for the efficient operation and maintenance of buildings in a cost - effective manner using optimal solutions https://pixabay.com/illustrations/smart - home - system - collection - bulb - 3720021/

34. The Smart Buildings Market • Faults and inefficiencies in buildings - A hotel use case - A hotel of 4,000 m 2 - Consumes an average of 688 MWh per year - Equivalent of 172 KWh per m 2 per year - This means 34 - 138 KWh per m 2 per year are wasted due to faults and inefficiencies - Good margins for savings https://pixabay.com/photos/smart - city - communication - network - 4168483/

22. Summary of IoT enabling technologies IoT Elements Samples Identification Naming EPC, uCode Addressing IPv4, IPv6 Sensing Smart Sensors, Wearable sensing devices, Embedded sensors, Actuators, RFID tag Communication (wired and wireless) RFID, NFC, UWB, Bluetooth, BLE, IEEE 802.15.4, Z - Wave, WiFi , WiFiDirect , LTE - A Computation Hardware SmartThings, Arduino, Phidgets , Intel Galileo, Rasberry Pi, Gadgeteer, BeagleBone , Cubiboard , Smart Phones Software OS (Contiki, TinyOS , LiteOS , Riot OS, Android); Cloud ( Nimbits , Hadoop, etc.) Service Identity - related (shipping), Information Aggregation (smart grid), Collaborative - Aware (smart home), Ubiquitous (smart city), Data Processing and Analytics, Automatic/Intelligent control systems, machine learning , artificial intelligence Semantic RDF, OWL, EXI

30. The Smart Buildings Market • Key Technologies – Artificial Intelligence (AI) – Machine Learning – Mobile Edge Computing – Big Data – Fault Detection and Diagnostics – Predictive analytics – Real - time visualisations – Interoperability https://pixabay.com/photos/laptop - computer - technology - monitor - 3190194/ https://pixabay.com/illustrations/accessibil ity - browsing - 5g - business - 3570138/ https://pixabay.com/illustrations/analytics - information - innovation - 3088958/

32. IoTs and the Smart Buildings Market • The increasing adoption of IoTs is expected to further boost the Smart Buildings Market, by providing greater analytics capabilities and remote accessibility • Market size of around $ 12 . 4 B in 2018 • Forecasts expect the market to grow up to $ 57 . 8 B by 2024 • Conservative Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGRs) of 20 % https://pixabay.com/illustrations/graph - chart - growth - report - analyst - 3068300/


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